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The Black Watch

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French Wars | 1745-1815

Ticonderoga

The Regiment was next engaged in the French-Indian War and especially at the Battle of Ticonderoga in 1758 where during the attack on the fort of that name more than half the men became casualties. By this time the Regiment had been allocated the numerical slot "42nd" in seniority, a number which it was to render illustrious all over the world. In recognition of its worth it was now granted the title "Royal" and raised a Second Battalion. In 1786 this battalion became a separate regiment in its own right, the 73rd, and was much in action in India and Ceylon, playing a prominent part in the capture of Mysore and Seringapatam.

The Americas

Meanwhile the 42nd had been busy in the West Indies in Guadaloupe in 1759 and in Martinique and Havanna for which it was to receive its first battle honours. It was later deployed to North America where it became involved in the American War of Independence. The Regiment took part in the successful action at Brooklyn, New York against George Washington's forces in 1776 and undertook much skirmishing against the rebels during the remainder of that war.

red hackleThe Red Hackle

It was in 1795 that The Black Watch is known to have adopted the Red Hackle in its bonnets, the most distinctive feature of the Regiment's uniform. The stories relating to its origin are numerous but it was certainly issued to the men at Royston, Hertfordshire that year. Others began to copy this but in 1822 an Army Order laid down that it was "to be used exclusively by the 42nd Regiment". Since then it has been worn in action in many parts of the World and is a much prized distinguishing mark.

Alexandria

The next 15 years of the Regiment's history were to be dominated by action against the French. The first campaign was in Egypt in 1801 where after a successful assault landing the 42nd fought with great distinction at the Battle of Alexandria, capturing the Colour of Napoleon's "Invincible" Legion. For its gallantry the Regiment won the honour of bearing the Sphinx on its Colours and badge. opposite: Death of General Sir Ralph Abercromby at the Battle of Alexandria March 1801

Peninsular War

No fewer than ten battle honours were awarded to the Regiment for its part in the continued fight against Napoleon's armies during the six years of the Peninsular War in Spain and Portugal. It was committed early, for in 1809 it took part in Sir John Moore's gruelling winter retreat through the mountains to Corunna, where it played a prominent part in the action covering the embarkation. The following year another battalion of the Regiment joined the Duke of Wellington's Army and was present at many of his famous victories including the final one at Toulouse in France in April 1814. By the end of that battle less than 60 men of the Battalion remained unwounded. opposite: "Attack of French Chasseurs on 42nd RH Regt at the Battle of Orthes February 1814". Sketch by Thomas McNiven who fought in this action as an officer in the Regiment"

Waterloo Campaign

black watch at bay

During Napoleon's final campaign of 1815 both the 42nd and the 73rd which were to become respectively the 1st and 2nd Battalions of The Black Watch played significant parts. They were first in action together at Quatre Bras on the 16th of June where they were hard pressed by French cavalry. Mistaking them for allies the 42nd had not time to form a defensive square and had a tough fight repulsing them. Two days later at the Battle of Waterloo it was the 73rd which was in the thickest of the fighting and subject to heavy losses from the French cannon.

Image above: "The Black Watch at Bay" The Battle of Quatre Bras 16 June 1815. Oil painting by W R Wollen RI.